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Examining the implementation of co-teaching in primary school bilingual programs

Yu-ting Ivy Chiu, Angela Yi-ping Hsu
National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan


In line with the Bilingual 2030 policy and intending to improve English proficiency in Taiwan, New Taipei City has been recruiting Native English-Speaking Teachers (NESTs) to co-teach with local teachers (LTs). In order to explore how co-teachers work together, what roles they play in class, as well as what factors affect their collaboration, this study analyzed questionnaires, class observations, and interviews collected from NESTs and their LTs in New Taipei City’s bilingual experimental programs. The findings revealed that NEST-LT pairs predominantly adopted one teach, one assist/observe approach, with NESTs taking the lead in courses while LTs supported classroom management and often functioned as translators and interpreters. For instance, after NESTs initiated teaching moves, LTs ensured students’ understanding of the input and correctness of their responses. In contrast to mainly one led and one assisted method, the pairs using team teaching as their approach showed interactive collaboration between teachers. NESTs and LTs were equally accountable for the class. They shared responsibilities to plan, lead, and assess students. Key factors that influenced co-teachers’ collaboration included incomprehensive understanding of co-teaching, uneven distribution of workloads, and lack of dedicated time for course preparation. As well, LT’s English language proficiency was discussed. The findings of this study can help primary schools refine their co-teaching practices and construct more effective strategies for bilingual instruction.


co-teaching, team teaching, bilingual programs

International Joint Conference of APLX, ETRA40, and TESPA 2023